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Edible Mushrooms

Don't eat mushrooms you are not absolutely sure are edible!

Here is a list of edible mushrooms. Remember, though mushrooms can be a very pleasant culinary experience or--if misidentified--make you sick or kill you. Make sure you read the guide to pick edible mushrooms if you intend to pick mushrooms to be eaten.

If you do collect fungi for the table, do not eat mushrooms you are not 100% certain of. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. Consider also that many of the edible mushrooms presented here have toxic look-alikes. Please read the disclaimer.

Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Craterellus tubaeformis   (Trumpet Chantarelle)
Family
Cantharellaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 1.5-6 cm dia; stem 3-8 cm tall * 0.4-0.9 cm dia.
Edibility

Description
Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is an edible fungus, also known as Yellowfoot, winter mushroom, or Trumpet Chanterelle. It is small to medium-sized, funnel-shaped, dingy-brown cap has forked veins instead of gills and a yellowish stem. It grows on moss and found mostly in conifer bogs.

Cap dark grayish brown, convex and sometimes hollow down the middle. The forked veins are widely separated, and of lighter color than the cap. Stem yellowish, more or less equal but often flattened, hollow. Flesh thin and membranous.

Similar species Chrysomphalina chrysophylla, which has gills instead of veins.

Cantharellus tubaeformis on the First Nature Web site.
Craterellus tubaeformis on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Gomphidius glutinosus   (Slimy Spike)
Family
Gomphidiaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-5 cm diameter, stem 2.5-4.5 cm tall * 0.4-1 cm thick
Edibility

Description
This gray-brown agaric is covered in a colorless, slimy veil. The stem has an indistinct ring zone, often stained black by spores, and its base is lemon-yellow. Mycorrhizal with spruse.

Cap gray-brown, convex or bun shaped, becoming expanded and flattened, heavily viscid when damp, becoming shiny when dry. Flesh dirty white, moderate and firm. Gills at first whitish, becoming tinged olivaceous-grey when mature, deeply decurrent, thick. Stem dirty white, more or less equal, lemon yellow at base. Ring white, glutinous, zone-like.

Gomphidius glutinosus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hericium erinaceus   (Lion's mane)
Family
Hericiaceae
Location
North America, Europe and Asia
Dimensions
Body 8–16 cm across, spines 1-5 cm long
Edibility

Description
Hericium erinaceus is an large, edible mushroom belonging to the tooth fungus group. It grows on cracks or knot holes of living hardwoods, most often oaks in late summer and fall.

Fruiting body consists of one, often roundish fruitbody with 1-5 cm long, soft spines hanging from a tough, hidden base that is attached to the tree. The spines are white, or in age discoloring brownish to yellowish. Stem very short if present.

Similar species Hericium coralloides is found only on wood of conifers and has coarser branches and longer spines in tufts, not in continous rows along lower surfaces.

Hericium erinaceus on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Hericium erinaceus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hydnum repandum   (Common Hedgehog Tooth)
Family
Hydnaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-10 cm diameter; stem 2-6 cm tall * 1.5-3 cm diameter
Edibility

Description
This is a medium-sized to large, fleshy mushroom with pale whitish to pale orange-yellow cap. It grows on soil in broad-leaf or coniferous woods.

Fruiting body orange-, yellow- or tan-colored, irregular in shape (it may be convex or concave at maturity), with a wavy margin that is rolled inward when young. The cap surface is generally dry and smooth, although mature specimens may show cracking. Viewed from above, the caps of mature specimens resemble somewhat those of chanterelles. The flesh is thick, white, firm, brittle, and bruises yellow to orange-brown. The underside is densely covered with small, slender off-white to pinkish spines measuring 2–7 mm long. These spines sometimes run down at least one side of the stem. Odor not distinctive. Stem Thick, central of off center; colored like cap or lighter.

Similar species Hydnum albidum has a white cap, smaller spores, and occurs on alkaline soil. Closely related Hydnum refescens is smaller and orange.

Hydnum repandum on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Hydnum repandum on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hydnum rufescens   (Terracotta Hedgehog)
Family
Hydnaceae
Location
Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-6 cm diameter, stem 1.5-4 cm diameter * 0.8-1.5 cm tall
Edibility

Description
This small or medium-sized fruiting body is similar to that of Hydnum repandum but salmon pink colored. It grows on soil in broad-leaf or coniferous woods.

Fruiting body is salmon-pink. Cap is smooth or faintly downy; it is at first convex with inrolled margin, becoming flattened and often slightly funnel-shaped. Margin remains incurved. Stem is stout, more or less equal, sometimes eccentric, and finely downy. Flesh is pinkish, soft, thick and rather crumbly. Spines are salmon pink and broadly attached to the stem. Spores are glassy in color.

Similar species Hydnum repandum.

Hydnum rufescens on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hygrophorus camarophyllus   (Arched Wood Wax)
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-7 cm diameter, stem 2.5 - 13 cm tall * 1 - 2 cm thick
Edibility

Description
This medium-sized agaric is distinct because of the dry, streaked cap, white, waxy gills that develop gray tones in age, and contrast beautifully with the carbon-brown cap and stem.

Cap umbonate and often with a raised boss in center of cap, carbon-brown to gray-black with dark radial streaks. Gills decurrent, sparse, waxy, first white, with age white-gray. Stem top often brighter than other stem but not always, otherwise greyish with ingrown threads, cylindrical or narrowed downward, solid to stuffed. Flesh white, brittle, with mild flavor and pleasant aroma.

Grows in mossy pine forests all over Scandinavia. Has a fairly modest taste but still a delicacy.

Similar species Hygrophorus calophyllus has a slimy viscid, evenly pigmented cap, pink gills, and broadly ellipsoid spores. Hygrophorus marzuolus, which fruits almost exclusively in spring near melting snow, differs primarily in having a viscid cap (when wet) and an unpleasant, mouse cage-like odor.
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Hygrophorus hypothejus   (Late Fall Wax Cap)
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-7 cm diameter, stem 4-7 cm tall * 0.7-1.4 cm thick
Edibility

Description
This smallish, slimy agaric has a dull brown cap and distinctive yellowish gills and stem. It grows in trooping groups on soil in pine woods from late autumn to winter.

Cap first convex and then flat. Dull olive-brown coloured and center is darker and often concave. The margins stay rolled in for some time. It is covered with a thick, glassy layer of slime, disappearing with age. It becomes very sticky in damp weather. Gills goes down the stem and are sparse and elastic. At first mild vanilla to butter yellow coloured, and turns orange as mature. Spores are white. Stem is pallid yellow, sometimes tinged with orange, tall and usually thin, more or less equal or tapering slightly downwards. It is sticky below the ring zone. The mushroom has no ring.

Similar species Hygrophorus locorum is bright yellow and associated with larch. Several other Hygrophorus species, found with pine, are distinguished from Hygrophorus hypothejus by their different coloring.

Hygrophorus hypothejus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Kuehneromyces mutabilis   (Scaly-veiled Galerina)
Family
Strophariaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-6 cm diameter, stem 3-8 cm tall * 0.5-1 cm thick
Edibility

Description
This medium-sized agaric has a bright tan cap, drying paler from the centre. It also has yellowish or reddish brown gills and a ring on the stem. It grows clustered on stumps and logs of broad-leaf trees, favorfavoring birch.

Cap convex, becoming flattened with a blunt umbo, and hygrophanous; as damp shiny and greasy with a deep orange-brown colour towards the rim; often there is a disc of lighter flesh in the middle. Cinnamon-coloured as dry. Gills initially light and later cinnamon brown and broadly attached to the stem and crowded. Sometimes somewhat decurrent. Spores are ochre-brown. Stem about 0.5–1 cm in diameter with a ring which separates the bare, smooth light cinnamon upper part from the darker brown shaggily scaly lower part.

Similar species A group of poisonous Galerina species are similar. Galerina are unicolor and Galerina marginata have fibers and no stem scales.

Warning: This mushroom is not recommended to be picked as food because it can be confused with the deadly poisonous Galerina marginata.

Kuehneromyces mutabilis on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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WARNING

If you plan to collect fungi to be eaten, misidentified mushrooms can make you sick or kill you. Do not eat mushrooms you are not 100% certain of. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. The site takes no responsibility for damage caused by wrong identifications. If you continue, you agree to view this website under these terms.