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Edible Mushrooms

Never pick and eat wild mushrooms unless they've been identified by an expert!

Here is a list of edible mushrooms. Many of these edible mushrooms presented here have toxic look-alikes and unless you are very experienced in mushroom identification, you can’t tell the difference between an edible mushroom and a poisonous one. Please read the disclaimer.

You can click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Cortinarius caperatus   (Gypsy Mushroom)
Family
Cortinariaceae
Location
North America, Europe, East Asia
Dimensions
Cap 5-12 cm diameter, stem 4-10 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm thick
Edibility

Description
Cortinarius caperatus, also known as Gypsy Mushroom, is egg-shaped on emerging and its cap becomes convex to umbonate with age. It is yellow-brown with a wrinkled surface and remnants of the white to lilac veil in the center. The smooth stem has a narrow, sheathing ring, also known as a partial veil, which is a key identifying feature of the mushroom. The fruit bodies appear in autumn in coniferous and beech woods as well as heathlands in late summer and autumn.

Cap yellow-brown to brownish-ochre, which is covered with whitish fibres. The surface has a wrinkled and furrowed texture. It may have a lilac tinge when young. Initially convex before expanding and flattening with a boss (umbo) in the centre. Gills pallid buff or clay, adnate, crowded. Spores are pale brown. Stem slightly swollen at the base, and is whitish with a whitish ring, which is initially attached to the cap.

Similar species Cortinarius species are related, but have no true stem rings and have rust-brown spores.

Cortinarius caperatus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
Cortinarius caperatus on the MushroomExpert.Com web site.
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Craterellus tubaeformis   (Trumpet Chantarelle)
Family
Cantharellaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 1.5-6 cm dia; stem 3-8 cm tall * 0.4-0.9 cm dia.
Edibility

Description
Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is an edible fungus, also known as Yellowfoot, winter mushroom, or Trumpet Chanterelle. It is a small to medium-sized, funnel-shaped, dingy-brown cap that has forked veins instead of gills and a yellowish stem. It grows on moss and found mostly in conifer bogs.

Cap dark grayish brown, convex and sometimes hollow down the middle. The forked veins are widely separated, and of lighter color than the cap. Stem tall, yellowish, somewhat flattened and hollow and often slightly club-shaped or bulbous at the base. Flesh thin and membranous.

Similar species include Chrysomphalina chrysophylla, which has gills instead of veins.

Cantharellus tubaeformis on the First Nature Web site.
Craterellus tubaeformis on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Gomphidius glutinosus   (Slimy Spike)
Family
Gomphidiaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-5 cm diameter, stem 2.5-4.5 cm tall * 0.4-1 cm thick
Edibility

Description
Gomphidius glutinosus, also known as Slimy Spike, is a grey-brown agaric that is covered in a colourless, slimy veil. The stem has an indistinct ring zone, often stained black by spores, and its base is lemon-yellow. The mushroom is mycorrhizal with spruce.

Cap grey-brown, convex or bun-shaped, becoming expanded and flattened, heavily viscid when damp, becoming shiny when dry. Flesh dirty white, moderate and firm. Gills at first whitish, becoming tinged olivaceous-grey when mature, deeply decurrent, thick. Stem dirty white, more or less equal, lemon yellow at base. Ring white, glutinous, zone-like.

Gomphidius glutinosus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hericium erinaceus   (Lion's mane)
Family
Hericiaceae
Location
North America, Europe and Asia
Dimensions
Body 8–16 cm across, spines 1-5 cm long
Edibility

Description
Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's mane, is a large, edible mushroom belonging to the tooth fungus group. It grows on cracks or knotholes of living hardwoods, most often oaks in late summer and fall.

Fruiting body consists of one, often roundish fruitbody with 1-5 cm long, soft spines hanging from a tough, hidden base that is attached to the tree. The spines are white, or in age discoloring brownish to yellowish. Stem very short if present.

Similar species Hericium coralloides is found only on wood of conifers and has coarser branches and longer spines in tufts, not in continous rows along lower surfaces.

Hericium erinaceus on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Hericium erinaceus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hydnum repandum   (Common Hedgehog Tooth)
Family
Hydnaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-10 cm diameter; stem 2-6 cm tall * 1.5-3 cm diameter
Edibility

Description
Hydnum repandum, also known as Common Hedgehog Tooth, is a medium-sized to large, fleshy mushroom with pale whitish to pale orange-yellow cap. It grows on soil in broad-leaf or coniferous woods. It is a popular edible mushroom that is easy to learn.

Fruiting body orange-, yellow- or tan-coloured, irregular in shape (it may be convex or concave at maturity), with a wavy margin that is rolled inward when young. The cap surface is generally dry and smooth, although mature specimens may show cracking. Viewed from above, the caps of mature specimens resemble somewhat those of chanterelles. The flesh is thick, white, firm, brittle, and bruises yellow to orange-brown. The underside is densely covered with small, slender off-white to pinkish spines measuring 2–7 mm long. These spines sometimes run down at least one side of the stem. Odour not distinctive. Stem Thick, central of off center; colored like cap or lighter.

Similar species include Hydnum albidum which has a white cap, smaller spores, and occurs on alkaline soil and the closely related Hydnum rufescens which is smaller and orange.

Hydnum repandum on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Hydnum repandum on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hydnum rufescens   (Terracotta Hedgehog)
Family
Hydnaceae
Location
Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-6 cm diameter, stem 1.5-4 cm diameter * 0.8-1.5 cm tall
Edibility

Description
Hydnum rufescens, also known as Terracotta Hedgehog, is a small or medium-sized fruiting body that is similar to that of Hydnum repandum but is smaller, thinner and salmon pink coloured. It grows on soil in broad-leaf or coniferous woods.

Fruiting body is salmon-pink. Cap is smooth or faintly downy; it is at first convex with an inrolled margin, becoming flattened and often slightly funnel-shaped. The margin remains incurved. The stem is stout, more or less equal, sometimes eccentric, and finely downy. The flesh is pinkish, soft, thick and rather crumbly. Spines are salmon pink and broadly attached to the stem. Spores are glassy in color.

Similar species include the closely related Hydnum repandum which is larger and white.

Hydnum rufescens on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Hygrophorus camarophyllus   (Arched Wood Wax)
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-7 cm diameter, stem 2.5 - 13 cm tall * 1 - 2 cm thick
Edibility

Description
Hygrophorus camarophyllus, also known as Arched Wood Wax, is a medium-sized agaric which is distinct because of the dry, streaked cap, white, waxy gills that contrast beautifully with the carbon-brown cap and stem.

Cap umbonate and often with a raised boss in center of the cap, carbon-brown to grey-black with dark radial streaks. Gills decurrent, sparse, waxy, first white, with age white-gray. Stem top often brighter than other stem but not always, otherwise greyish with ingrown threads, cylindrical or narrowed downward, solid to stuffed. Flesh white, brittle, with a mild flavour and a pleasant aroma.

Grows in mossy pine forests all over Scandinavia. Has a fairly modest taste but still a delicacy.

Similar species include Hygrophorus calophyllus has a slimy viscid, evenly pigmented cap, pink gills, and broadly ellipsoid spores and Hygrophorus marzuolus, which fruits almost exclusively in spring near melting snow, differs primarily in having a viscid cap (when wet) and an unpleasant, mouse cage-like odour.
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Hygrophorus hypothejus   (Late Fall Wax Cap)
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-7 cm diameter, stem 4-7 cm tall * 0.7-1.4 cm thick
Edibility

Description
Hygrophorus hypothejus, also known as Late Fall Wax Cap, is a smallish, slimy agaric that has a dull brown cap and distinctive yellowish gills and stem. It grows scattered or in groups on soil under conifers, common under 2-needle pines from late autumn to winter.

Cap first convex and then flat. Dull olive-brown coloured and center are darker and often concave. The margins stay rolled in for some time. It is covered with a thick, glassy layer of slime, disappearing with age. It becomes very sticky in damp weather. Gills goes down the stem and are sparse and elastic. At first mild vanilla to butter yellow coloured, and turns orange as mature. Spores are white. Stem is pallid yellow, sometimes tinged with orange, tall and usually thin, more or less equal or tapering slightly downwards. The mushroom has no ring, but it has a superior ring-like swelling. It is sticky below that zone.

Similar species include Hygrophorus locorum which is bright yellow and associated with larch. Several other Hygrophorus species, found with pine, are distinguished from Hygrophorus hypothejus by their different colouring.

Hygrophorus hypothejus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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WARNING

If you plan to collect fungi to be eaten, misidentified mushrooms can make you sick or kill you. Never eat a mushroom that you are not 100% sure is edible. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. Please consider that many mushrooms take years of experience to identify reliably.

The site takes no responsibility for damage caused by ingesting poisonous mushrooms. If you continue, you agree to view this website under these terms.