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Poisonous Mushrooms

Here is a list of some poisonous mushrooms, of which many are deadly poisonous. Do not under any circumstances taste or eat of any of these mushrooms.

Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Amanita virosa   (Destroying angel)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 5-9 cm diameter, stem 13-20 cm tall * 1.5-2 cm diameter
Edibility
Lethally poisonous

Description
Amanita virosa, also known as Destroying angel, is a lethally poisonous, medium-large to large, white fleshy mushroom with a shaggy stalk and volval bag. It grows solitary or scattered on soil in broad-leaf or mixed woods. The mushroom contains a complex group of poisonous substances called amatoxins.

Cap white to yellow in colour, at first round to egg-shaped, then flat but often retaining a flat umbo, usually with veil remnants at the margins. The flesh is white and firm. Gills white (can turn yellow), free, crowded. Stem long and thread-like and has tufts above the ring and arising from large bag-like vulva often buried deep in the soil. The large ring sits high on the stem and easily breaks and falls off. It is produced by the inner veil.

Similar species include Amanita bisporigera which is a smaller, more slender, two-spored, but equally deadly mushroom. The mushroom can also be confused with edible Button mushrooms (Agaricus species). They have faint pink to brown gills, where Amanita virosa has white gills.

Amanita virosa on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Chlorophyllum molybdites   (False parasol)
Family
Agaricaceae
Location
North America and Europe
Dimensions
Cap 8-30 cm diameter; stem 5-30 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Chlorophyllum molybdites, also known as False parasol, is a large agaric with a white hat that has coarse brownish scales. The mushroom is poisonous and is commonly confused with the shaggy parasol or shaggy mane, and is the most commonly consumed poisonous mushroom in North America.

Cap convex to bell-shaped, with tin incurved margin, expanding to broadly convex. The surface is first covered by a thin layer of shiny, pale pinkish buff volva tissue that soon cracks into scales, exposing the white cap surface. Gills close, broad, free and remote from the stem, pale yellowish but becoming green as spores mature. Spores green coloured. Stem slender, enlarged towards the base, white and bears a double-edged ring that is white at first but becomes brown and scaly on the underside.

Similar species include Chlorophyllum rhacodes and the edible Macrolepiota procera.

Chlorophyllum molybdites on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Identifying the Most Common Poisonous Mushroom: Chlorophyllum molybdites on the Foraged Foodie Web site.

The seventh photo is by Sylvia and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
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Clathrus ruber   (Caged stinkhorn)
Family
Phallaceae
Location
North America and Europe
Dimensions
Fruiting body 4-10 cm tall * variable diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Clathrus ruber, also know as caged stinkhorn or the basket stinkhorn is a red mushroom that develops a spherical cage-like structure. It emerges from a white or buff egg.

Fruiting Body as immature a whitish to faintly brownish egg which is 3–5 cm in diameter. As mature it is 5–18 cm high and 4–10 cm in diameter, consisting of a mesh of arms that surround semi-regular openings, creating a lattice-like structure with is orangish-red to red, fading to pinkish.

Similar species There are many Clathrus species which are mainly tropical. Some are bright red, others are white.

Clathrus ruber on the www.first-nature.com web site.
Clathrus ruber on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Coprinopsis atramentaria   (Common Ink Cap)
Family
Psathyrellaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-7 cm tall * variable diameter, stem 7-14 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Coprinopsis atramentaria, commonly known as the common ink cap, inky cap or alcohol inky cap, is poisonous when combined with alcohol. It is a medium-sized conical agaric, that is greyish brownish, later blackening and dissolves itself in a black ink-like liquid at maturity. It grows generally in tufts, in fields, gardens and waste ground, near broad-leaf tree stumps or buried wood.

Cap egg-shaped, expanding to become slightly umbonate with age. The colour is gray to gray-brown. Flesh is white, hollow and medium in young specimens but soon discolors and deliqueces slowly from the margin. Gills free, extremely crowded and edged with white. Spores are black. Stem is white and smooth with fine, reddish brown fibrils at base.

Similar species Coprinus insignis has warty spores. Coprinus micaeus is smaller and more fragile. It granulates when young.

Coprinopsis atramentaria on the First Nature Web site.
Coprinopsis atramentaria on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Cortinarius orellanus   (Fool's Webcap)
Family
Cortinariaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-7 cm diameter, stem 3-8 cm tall * 0.5-1.3 cm diameter
Edibility
Lethally poisonous

Description
Cortinarius orellanus, also know as Fool's Webcap, is a medium-sized agaric with a tawny brown, blunt umbonate cap. The gills are coloured as the stem. Grows solitary or in scattered trooping groups, with broad-leaf trees. The mushroom is lethally poisonous.

Cap bell-shaped, with a sharply inrolled margin at first, expanding to convex or flat, with a broad, low, rounded hump. Surface minutely fibrillose, tending to develop fine, depressed scales. Brownish orange to reddish-orange. Margin thin, often flaring in age. Stem cylindrical, becoming hollow. Surface fibrillose; moderate yellow to moderate orange with zones of reddish.

Similar species Many in Cortinarius and related genera.

Cortinarius orellanus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Cortinarius rubellus   (Deadly Webcap)
Family
Cortinariaceae
Location
Europe and parts of Asia
Dimensions
Cap 3-8 cm diameter, stem 5-11 cm tall * 0.8-1.5 cm diameter
Edibility
Lethally poisonous

Description
Cortinarius rubellus, commonly known as the Deadly Webcap, is a lethally poisonous mushroom that smells of radishes and is reddish-orange with a pointed, umbonate cap covered with fibrils.

Cap conical to convex (partly flattening to umbonate with maturity). In colour, it is a tawny to date brown with paler margins and is covered in fine, fibrous scales. The gills are ochre- or caramel-coloured, changing to a deeper brown with age as the spores mature. They have an adnate connection to the stipe. The Stem has a bulbous base. It is the same colour or slightly paler than the cap and can have yellow fragments of the veil (cortina) attached to its lower half. The flesh is cream or pale yellow, but more tan below the pileipellis and in the stem base. It smells slightly of radishes and has no strong taste.

Similar species Cortinarius limonius, also poisonous, has more vivid orange colouring. Cortinarius orellanus has a less conical cap and grows near deciduous trees.

Cortinarius rubellus on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Cortinarius semisanguineus   (Poison Dye Cort)
Family
Cortinariaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-6 cm diameter, stem 2-10 cm tall * 0.4-1 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Cortinarius semisanguineus, also know as Poison Dye Cort, is a medium-sized mushroom with a pale brown to an ochre cap, and bright blood-red gills and yellowish stem. It grows typically with conifers and birch.

Cap olive- to dark reddish brown, convex to umbonate. Gills blood red, later more reddish rust and adnate, sinuate and fairly crowded. Spores are rusty brown. Stem usually same colour as the cap or paler, smooth, or finely fibrillose like the cap with threadlike remnants of veil. Stem flesh darker red-brown than cap flesh. The mushroom has no ring.

Cortinarius semisanguineus on the First Nature Web site.
Cortinarius semisanguineus on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Galerina marginata   (Funeral Bell)
Family
Strophariaceae
Location
Europe, North America, Asia and Australia
Dimensions
Cap 2.5-6.5 cm diameter, stem 3-9 cm tall * 0.3-0.8 cm diameter
Edibility
Lethally poisonous

Description
Galerina marginata, also known as Funeral Bell, is a small agaric with a yellowish tan, sticky cap, similarly coloured as the gills and a ring on the stem. It grows in clusters on stumps and logs of broad-leaf trees. As the name, Funeral Bell indicates the mushroom is poisonous. It contains the same toxins as the Death Cap so it is a good mushroom to get to know and then avoid.

Cap starts convex, sometimes broadly conical, and has edges (margins) that are curved in against the gills. It becomes later broadly convex and then flattened, sometimes developing a central elevation or umbo. Gills typically narrow and crowded, with a broadly adnate to nearly decurrent attachment to the stem and convex edges. They are a pallid brown when young, becoming tawny at maturity. Stem more or less equal or is slightly enlarged downward. Initially solid, it becomes hollow from the bottom up as it matures. The membranous ring is located on the upper half of the stem near the cap but may be sloughed off and missing in older specimens. Above the level of the ring, the stem surface has a very fine whitish powder and is paler than the cap; below the ring, it is brown down to the reddish-brown to bistre base.

Similar species Galerina marginata may be mistaken for a few edible mushroom species like Pholiota mutabilis, Armillaria mellea and Kuehneromyces mutabilis.

Galerina marginata on the First Nature Web site.
Galerina marginata on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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WARNING

If you plan to collect fungi to be eaten, misidentified mushrooms can make you sick or kill you. Never eat a mushroom that you are not 100% sure is edible. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. Please consider that many mushrooms take years of experience to identify reliably.

The site takes no responsibility for damage caused by ingesting poisonous mushrooms. If you continue, you agree to view this website under these terms.