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Poisonous Mushrooms

Here is a list of some poisonous mushrooms, of which many are deadly poisonous. Do not under any circumstances taste or eat of any of these mushrooms.

Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Gyromitra esculenta   (False Morel)
Family
Discinaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
5-15 cm diameter, 5-12 cm tall, including stem
Edibility
Lethally poisonous

Description
Gyromitra esculenta, also known as False Morel, has a fruiting body that consists of an irregular, brown, brain-like structure on a pale stem. It grows solitary or in small trooping groups near conifers, typically on acid, sandy soils.

Fruiting body irregularly shaped and reminds of a brain structure. Initially smooth, it becomes progressively more wrinkled as it grows and ages. The cap colour may be various shades of reddish-, chestnut-, purplish-, bay-, dark or sometimes golden-brown. Stem attached to the cap at several points. Gyromitra esculenta has a solid stipe whereas those of true morels (Morchella spp.) are hollow. The spore print is whitish.

Warning This mushroom is deadly poisonous. Toxins allegedly lost after thorough cooking but, if ingested, the effect is probably cumulative with no immediate symptoms.

Similar species Gyromitra gigas, Gyromitra brunna, Gyromitra caroliniana and Gyromitra korfii are often larger and more vivid orange-brown; common in parts of North America.

Gyromitra esculenta on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Gyromitra esculenta on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Gyromitra infula   (Hooded false morel)
Family
Discinaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
2-8 cm diameter, 2-13 cm tall, including stem
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Gyromitra infula, also known as Hooded false morel, occurs in late summer and fall, not in the spring when other species of Gyromitra can be found. Its broadly lobed cap is usually pinched into two lobes, creating a saddle-shaped appearance. Its colour is variable.

Fruiting body occasionally nearly cup-shaped when young, but soon becoming lobed with two prominently raised lobes; bald; loosely wrinkled but usually not brainlike; varies in colour (tan to yellowish-brown to reddish-brown to dark brown); undersurface whitish to brownish, finely dusted, sometimes ingrown with stem where contact occurs. Stem equal to enlarged at the base, stuffed or hollow, round to compressed, sometimes with a longitudinal fold, surface glabrous to subpubescent, coloured like the cap or lighter.

Similar species The deadly poisonous Gyromitra esculenta reminds of this mushroom.

Gyromitra infula on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Hebeloma crustuliniforme   (Poison Pie)
Family
Bolbitiaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-10 cm diameter, stem 4-7 cm tall * 1-2 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Hebeloma crustuliniforme, also known as Poison Pie, is a medium to large agaric with buff or tan, greasy cap, clay gills and a stoutish, pale stem. Young gills have watery droplets on the edges. It grows single to grouped, sometimes in fairy rings on soil under conifers or hardwoods. The mushroom is moderately poisonous.

Cap buff to pale tan, convex then umbonate with an inrolled cap margin until old. Gills pale grey-brown and exude droplets in moist conditions, adnate or adnexed, crowded. Spores are rust colored. Stem whitish, fairly stout, more or less equal, granular towards apex and the thick flesh is white. The mushroom has no ring.

Hebeloma crustuliniforme on the First Nature Web site.
Hebeloma crustuliniforme on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Hebeloma mesophaeum   (Veiled Poisonpie)
Family
Bolbitiaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2.5-4.5 cm diameter, stem 4-7 cm tall * 0.3-0.4 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Hebeloma mesophaeum, also known as Veiled Poisonpie, is a smallish agaric that has a convex to broadly umbonate grey-brown cap with a pale margin and pale brown stem. It grows solitary or in small groups on soil, mostly with conifers in late summer to autumn. The mushroom is moderately poisonous.

Cap dry, or slightly greasy, gray-brown, darker chocolate-brown toward center with pallid whitish margin decorated with fibrous velar remnants when young. Gills notched, medium spaced and pale brown coloured. Spores are rust colored. Flesh brownish, firm and stuffed. Stem pallid buff, becoming tinged brown with age, more or less equal, sometimes with a faint or more prominent ring zone.

Hebeloma mesophaeum on the First Nature Web site.
Hebeloma mesophaeum on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Hypholoma fasciculare   (Sulphur Tuft)
Family
Strophhariaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 2-7 cm diameter, 4-10 cm tall * 0.5-1 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Hypholoma fasciculare, also known as Sulphur Tuft Mushroom, is a medium-sized agaric whose main two characteristics is the greenish-yellow gills and a tendency to cluster on dead wood.

Cap convex, sulphur-yellow with darker orange center. It is expanded with age, smooth but with velar remnants attached to the margin. Flesh is sulphur-yellow, firm and moderate. Gills green sheen on greenish yellow to alove-brown, crowded, adnate. Stem is more or less similarly colored as the cap, but it is darker brown towards the base. Ring is zone-like, faint, and with maturity same color as spores.

Hypholoma fasciculare on the First Nature Web site.
Hypholoma fasciculare on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Inocybe lacera   (Torn-cap Inocybe)
Family
Cortinariaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 1-4 cm diameter, stem 2-4 cm tall * 0.2-0.5 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Inocybe lacera, also know as Torn-cap Inocybe, is in appearance a typical "little brown mushroom", but specific features are very variable. It grows often on sandy soil with coniferous trees and on old moss-covered fire sites.

Cap snuff-brown, typically convex with a small umbo, fibrillose and scaley. The margin curves inwards and often splits. The flesh is whitish and unchanging. Gills are cream coloured in younger specimens, becoming grey-brown with whitish edges. They are notched at the margin or reach towards but are not attached to the stem. Spores are tobacco brown. Stem brown at the slightly bulbous base, but lighter towards the apex, and fibrillose. The mushroom has no ring.

Similar species Inocybe lanuginosa has a woollier stem and spores with nodules.

Inocybe lacera on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Lactarius helvus   (Poison Lactarius)
Family
Russulaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 4-10 cm diameter; stem 3-6 cm tall * 1-2.3 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Lactarius helvus, also known as Poison Lactarius, is a medium-sized or large agaric that has a spicy smell, similar to curry. It has a cinnamon-brown cap, buff gills and excluding colourless, transparent milk. It grows solitary or in scattered groups on the soil.

Cap velvety, initially slightly convex, becoming funnel-shaped as it matures and has a faint zonate (bull's-eye) pattern, beige or light grey at the margins and darkening toward the centre. Gills decurrent, first cream coloured, then darkening to ochre-yellow. The flesh is white or beige, often pink-tinged. Stem is similarly coloured like the cap or more reddish-brown, more or less equal. The mushroom has no ring.

Similar species Lactarius aquifluus is very similar in appearance and grows in North America.

Lactarius helvus on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Leucoagaricus leucothites   (White Dapperling)
Family
Agaricaceae
Location
North America and Europe
Dimensions
Cap 3-9 cm diameter, stem 6-8 cm tall * 0.8-1.8 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Leucoagaricus leucothites, also known as the White Dapperling, is a medium-sized fleshy, white agaric that grows solitary or scattered mostly in grassy areas, gardens, and other human-influenced habitats, but also occasionally in forests. The mushroom fruits in spring and summer.

Cap white, initially convex, expanding to become almost flat. Often smooth and silky but occasionally with tiny flakes or scales. Gills white, tinged pallid buff with age, free from the stem and crowded. Stem White, smooth above ring, longitudinally fibrillose below. Cylindrical with a bulbous base. The white ring sometimes becomes moveable.

Similar species the mushroom is most commonly confused with the deadly poisonous mushrooms Amanita virosa and Amanita bisporigera, which also has white gills. Similar species in the Agaricus genus does not have white gills.

Note The mushroom is considered edible in some older field guides but according to more recent information Leucoagaricus leucothites is poisonous. There is also a great risk of confusion with the deadly Amanita species like Deathcap and Destroying Angel. A general guideline is to shun all mushrooms with white gills.

Leucoagaricus leucothites on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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WARNING

If you plan to collect fungi to be eaten, misidentified mushrooms can make you sick or kill you. Never eat a mushroom that you are not 100% sure is edible. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. Please consider that many mushrooms take years of experience to identify reliably.

The site takes no responsibility for damage caused by ingesting poisonous mushrooms. If you continue, you agree to view this website under these terms.